Michael Grisanti notes that “God’s establishment of his covenant with David represents one of the theological high points of the OT Scriptures. This key event builds on the preceding covenants and looks forward to the ultimate establishment of God’s reign on the earth.”[1] Moreover, T.D. Alexander states that “the Davidic dynasty occupies a central place in the story of God’s dealings with the nation of Israel.”[2] Because of its theological importance, the Davidic Covenant has been the subject of much discussion in biblical studies. Ardent students of scripture cannot ignore the prominent role it plays in the development of Christian thought and theology. In this article, I would like to present the provisions and character of the Davidic Covenant and show how the implications of the covenant play out in the Prophets and the Psalms. Lastly, I would like to show how Matthew 22:41-46 points to Jesus as the Davidic Messiah who will rule justly and be victorious over his enemies.

The Davidic Covenant

  1. God’s promises to David

          Before I present the Davidic Covenant, I believe it is important to understand some significant events that took place before it was established. When Israel was chosen by God to be his nation, she not only became a recipient of divine promises but also had the privilege of having God as her King. But the blessings and privileges the Israelites enjoyed were soon taken for granted. In 1 Samuel 8:5, the Israelites asked for a human king. Since their motivation stemmed from envy, the Israelites chose a king to their liking. They chose Saul not because he was godly but because he was handsome and taller than any of the people (1 Sam. 9:2). This was a recipe for disaster. Since Saul did not possess godly character and integrity, he eventually failed as a king and was rejected by God. Because of Saul’s poor leadership and example, one might think that God would no longer allow any human king to rule over his people. However, God commanded Samuel to go to Jesse for he has chosen a king among his sons (1 Sam. 16:1). When David arrived, the Lord said, “Arise, anoint him, for this is he” (1 Sam. 16:12). How can a young shepherd boy become Israel’s king? How can he effectively lead God’s people? From a human perspective, David did not seem to be Israel’s ideal king. But one must understand that God’s choice was not based on David’s abilities but on his steadfast love toward him. Understanding this background to God’s covenant with David will help one see that the Davidic Covenant is entirely dependent on God; he was the one who chose David and he alone can fulfill the promises he made to his chosen servant. John Walvoord enumerates the provisions of the Davidic covenant in 2 Samuel 7:12-16:

(1) David is to have a child, yet to be born, who shall succeed him and establish his kingdom. (2) This son (Solomon) shall build the temple instead of David. (3) The throne of his kingdom shall be established forever. (4) The throne will not be taken away from him (Solomon) even though his sins justify chastisement. (5) David’s house, throne, and kingdom shall be established forever.[3]

But how can David’s kingdom be established forever since David and his successors died? This can be answered by the fact that Jesus fulfills the promises given to David as the Davidic Messiah who came to establish God’s spiritual kingdom through his atoning work on the cross and will one day return to establish God’s physical kingdom on earth. As seen from the New Testament scriptures, the coming of Jesus as the Davidic Messiah was not dependent on David or Israel’s obedience. Jesus came to accomplish the Father’s will despite Israel’s unfaithfulness. Hence, the character of the Davidic Covenant is unconditional. J. Dwight Pentecost provides three reasons why it is an unconditional covenant: “(1) It is called eternal in 2 Samuel 7:13, 16; 23:5; Isaiah 55:3; and Ezekiel 37:25. (2) It only amplifies the ‘seed’ promises of the original Abrahamic covenant, which has shown to be unconditional. . . . (3) It was reaffirmed after repeated acts of disobedience on the part of the nation.”[4] It is important to note that its unconditionality does not mean God will not chastise David, Solomon, or the kings that ruled after them when they sin, nor does it imply that Israel’s obedience to the Torah is unnecessary or irrelevant. The books of Samuel and Kings show that God chastised the kings and Israel when they sinned against him. But despite their failures, God did not abrogate His covenant with David because it was conditioned on his faithfulness, not on their obedience.

  1. David’s response to the promises of God

            In 2 Samuel 7:18-29, David is overwhelmed by the fact that God chose him to be the recipient of such a marvelous covenant. David knows that he and his house are unworthy to receive God’s favor (2 Sam. 7:19). Here we see a contrast between him and Saul. David saw the promises in the covenant not as a means to exalt himself but to glorify God for his grace and mercy. David was a man humbled by the greatness of God; he recognized that the covenant was ultimately for God’s glory. After receiving God’s promises, David concludes: “Therefore, you are great, O Lord, God. For there is none like you, and there is no God besides you. . . .” (2 Sam. 7:22). He then recounts the mighty deeds God performed in delivering his people from their oppressors (2 Sam. 7:23-24) and concludes by asking God to fulfill his promises that he may be blessed forever (1 Sam. 7:25-29). From the structure of David’s prayer, I see three things: (1) David expressed his gratitude for the present blessing he received from God (2 Sam. 7:18-22). (2) David recounts God’s faithfulness in Israel’s past to show God’s unchanging character (2 Sam. 7:19-24). (3) David puts his hope in God who will fulfill his promises in the future (2 Sam. 7:25-29).  Moreover, Walter Kaiser Jr. identifies one additional feature in the 2 Samuel 7 passage that deserves some special comment:

The use of the divine name Adonai Yahweh. It occurs in David's prayer six times; verses 19 (bis), 10, 22, 28, 29. . . . This was the name Abraham used when God spoke to him about the promise of a seed, and it resulted in Abraham's putting his trust in what God said. . . . David was fully cognizant of the fact, that he was participating, in both the progress and organic unity of revelation. The "blessing" of Abraham is continued in this "blessing" of David: "With thy blessing let the house of thy servant be blessed forever" (2 Sam. 7:29).[5]

The repeated use of the divine name Adonai Yahweh sends a clear message: it is God who will establish David’s kingdom forever. The success of David’s dynasty is dependent on God alone. As God fulfilled his covenant with Abraham so will he fulfill his covenant with David.   

Implications of the Davidic Covenant

  1. Prophets

Bruce Waltke notes, “Although the prophets did not use the term ‘Messiah,’ they contributed significantly to the doctrine of a future king that would rule Israel and the world in the last days.”[6] For example, in the midst of Israel’s national defeat, Isaiah speaks of the arrival of a child who will defend God’s people. He will be called “Wonderful Counselor, Mighty God, Everlasting Father, Prince of Peace” (Isaiah 9:6). These titles point to the fact that David’s messianic heir will rule over Gentiles and lead them to know the true God (Gen. 49:10; 2 Sam. 7:8-16).[7] Indeed, he is the Anointed One who will establish and uphold David’s throne and kingdom (Isaiah 9:7). In Isaiah 11, the mention of “a shoot from the stump of Jesse” (Isa. 11:1) suggests that God has not abrogated his covenant with David and that the Messiah will come from his line. Like David, the Messiah will be empowered by the Spirit and will be given the wisdom to rule righteously and fulfill God’s plans (Isa 11:2). Moreover, the Messiah will be the ideal ruler because he will be upright in every way and will decide with equity (11:3). Robert Chisholm Jr. notes, “This royal portrait of one who promotes justice also coincides with the ideal expressed in the royal psalms (Pss. 45:4., 6-7; 72:1-4, 12-14) and with the description of David’s reign (2 Sam. 8:15).”[8] Isaiah 55, on the other hand, is one of the clearest invitations to salvation in the OT.[9] Kaiser notes, “Isaiah 55:3 features in a soteriological appeal, ‘the everlasting covenant. . . even the sure mercies of David.’ . . . the stress is on its eternality and that without condition or deletion of any of its parts.”[10]John Eaton concludes, “The nation is to be blessed within the radius of the Davidic covenant, but the destiny of the royal house remains.”[11] Chisholm believes that Eaton’s explanation is more consistent with the way the Davidic dynasty is viewed in the exilic and postexilic periods.[12] Furthermore, like Isaiah 55, Jeremiah 33:14-26 affirms the eternality of David’s throne. The striking illustration of God’s covenant with the day and the night proves that his covenant with David will not be broken (Jer. 33:20-21). By showing how he consistently deals with nature, God wants his people to know that his covenant with David is rooted in his character. Since God does not change, his covenant with David will endure forever. Moreover, William Pohl observes, “Like Isaiah, Jeremiah promises the continuing significance of the Davidic dynasty to his people by inviting them to engage Yahweh in a relationship.”[13] In their distress, God wants them to call to him (Jer. 33:3). Hence, the purpose of the Davidic Covenant is also educational in a sense that God uses it to teach his people about his character and ways. By recognizing the steadfast love of God towards David, they are encouraged to trust him since he is faithful in fulfilling his promises. Furthermore, the fulfillment of his promises to David is also connected to their welfare as a nation: “In those days Judah will be saved, and Jerusalem will dwell securely” (Jer. 33:16). Thus, they must submit to God’s discipline and believe that he will one day bring them back to their land.

            As a prophet during the exilic period, Daniel Block notes that “Ezekiel announces that the ancient promise has not been forgotten. Yahweh will fulfill his irrevocable promise and his unfailing covenant to the house of David as the sole legitimate dynasty in Israel.”[14] In Ezekiel 34, the prophet addresses the shepherds (vv. 1-16) and then the sheep (vv. 17-31). Since rulers were described as shepherds in the ancient Near East,[15] there is a hint of irony in Ezekiel’s use of the term “shepherd.” A shepherd’s job was to lead and protect the flock. However, the shepherds of Israel abandoned their flock and instead of caring for the sheep, they only cared for themselves (34:1-4). As a result of their negligence, God’s flock was scattered and lost (34:5-6). But unlike the unfaithful shepherds, God does not abandon his flock (v. 12) but provides a shepherd who will care for them (34:23-24).  

Block provides vital information on the new shepherd’s status within Israel:

(1) This ruler will be neither self-appointed nor elected by the people, but chosen by Yahweh himself. (2) The shepherd will be singular. (3) The shepherd will be David. (4) The shepherd will be the servant of Yahweh. (5) The shepherd will be a prince in the midst of his people.[16]

Ezekiel’s portrayal of the shepherd-prince points to the Davidic Messiah who will shepherd God’s people according to God’s will.

            Amos 9 is the final vision of the prophet and is divided into two parts, one negative (vv. 1-10) and the other positive (vv. 11-15).[17] The second half of the chapter shows that God’s ultimate purpose is the restoration of his people.[18] Moreover, their restoration is linked to the fulfillment of the Davidic Covenant. Amid God’s judgment, he “will raise up the booth of David that is fallen” (v. 11). Hence, their restoration is dependent on God’s covenant with David (v. 14-15).

            Lastly, messianism is also found in the book of Kings.[19] Iain Provan states, “For much of the narrative it provides us with an explanation as to why the Davidic dynasty survives, when other dynasties do not, in spite of the disobedience of David’s successors (e.g., 1 Ki. 11:36; 15:4).”[20] Despite the failures of Judah’s kings, the Davidic line is preserved by God and the only explanation to this is the covenant God made with David in 2 Samuel 7.[21] Provan states, “It is this promise that makes the ultimate difference between Davidic kings and those of other royal houses throughout much of the book of Kings; that makes the Judean dynasty unshakeable even while the dynasties of the northern kingdom are like ‘reeds swaying in the water’” (1 Ki. 14:15).[22]

            As God’s people expected and experienced God’s judgment and witnessed the tyrannical rule of their evil oppressors, the reaffirmation of the Davidic Covenant’s eternality gave them comfort and hope. Furthermore, the way the Messiah’s character and actions were described in the Prophets provide a contrast to the former kings that ruled God’s people. This assured God’s people that he will not abandon them but will fulfill his promises to David so that they would experience the kind of peace and restoration they have always longed for. God’s mercy is also seen in the way he dealt with his people before, during, and after the exile. The Israelites have always been a stubborn people; their history as a nation can attest to that. But despite their many sins, God does not cancel his mercy toward them but assured them that his covenant with David will never be broken. It is this promise that sustained God’s people during times of judgment. Indeed, the way by which the implications of the covenant play out in the Prophets is a testament to God’s sustaining grace toward undeserving sinners. Hence, the prophets not only spoke of future events that would take place (destruction and restoration) but also declared the enduring promises of God toward his servant David in times of unrest and uncertainty.

  1. Psalms

Knut Heim states, “Not one royal psalm originated as a prediction of a future savior king; all of them originally referred to the king actually reigning at the time. A messianic meaning was given to them only after the disappearance of the Davidic dynasty.”[23] To understand the implications of the Davidic Covenant in the Psalms, it is important to know the canonical arrangement of the Psalter. According to Gerald Wilson the “seam psalms” have a connection to the Davidic covenant.[24] Tremper Longman III and Raymond Dillard note, “Thus, Psalm 2, the first psalm of Book 1, alludes to 2 Samuel 7 where this covenant is narrated, and Wilson treats the psalm as an announcement of the covenant.”[25] While the setting of Psalm 2 cannot be determined, most scholars believe that it belongs to the royal period of Israel’s history.[26] Psalm 2:1-3 reveals the folly of the pagan nations in going against the Lord and his Anointed. The sarcasm found in verse 4 conveys the fact that God is not threatened by their evil machinations for he has appointed his king over his holy hill (Ps. 2:6). Edward Tesh notes, “If this psalm is part of a coronation ceremony in its original context, the king may have been Solomon.”[27] But what I find interesting in this royal psalm is that it does not end with the king God appointed (Ps. 2:6). In verse 7 there is a reference to 2 Samuel 7:11–16.[28] A Messiah from the line of David, who is greater than Solomon will receive the nations as a heritage and will rule them with a rod of iron (Ps. 2:8-9). This reveals the extent and power of his kingdom. In light of the Davidic Messiah’s future reign, the kings who have united to oppose God are being warned while the world is asked to contemplate on the Son’s wrath. It becomes clear that the right response to his authority is to serve and worship him. Those who do so and take refuge in him are called blessed (Ps. 2:10-12).  C. John Collins sees an implication for the psalmist’s audience: “At a time when Gentile kingdoms sought to throw off Israelite rule, this psalm recalls the promises made to the Davidic king at his coronation. Gentiles will find lasting joy only as subjects of this king.”[29] For the Israelites who constantly faced the threats of wicked nations, Psalm 2 was a source of hope. They found comfort in the truth that earthly rulers who reject God and oppress his people will one day experience the wrath of God’s Son.

            Psalm 72 is the last Psalm of Book 2.[30] Grisanti notes, “By personal example and deed, the Davidic king was to promote righteousness and justice in the land (v. 1). He would do this by defending the cause of the afflicted, weak, and helpless, and by crushing their oppressors (vv. 2, 4,12-14).”[31] Hence, only the heavenly Messiah can fulfill God’s promises to David since he is righteous in every way. Heim notes, “From the point of view of post-monarchial Judah, Psalm 72, thus became a model prayer: this is how they should pray for the restoration of the monarchy/kingdom.”[32] Thus, their prayers should be shaped by God’s standard and not by their own ideas of what a king should be. Grisanti states, “As part of God's revelation of his plan for his chosen people, the Davidic Covenant has both immediate and far-reaching implications. In addition to establishing David's dynasty, this covenant looks forward to a descendant of David who would bring peace and justice to God's people through his reign.”[33] Thus, God’s people should not put their hopes on earthly and sinful kings who constantly disappoint them with their imperfections and weaknesses. The Davidic Messiah must be the object of their hope for he alone can rule the world perfectly.

            Justin Huffman states, “Psalm 89 has been referred to by many Bible students as an exegesis of the Davidic Covenant found in 2 Samuel 7.”[34] In its immediate context, it tries to reconcile the present defeat of the Davidic dynasty to its future glory. The structure of Psalm 89 reveals this dilemma: The covenantal promises to David (vv. 19-29) and his descendants (vv. 30-37) seek to affirm the character of the Davidic Covenant. Moreover, since God is the one who established this covenant, the Psalmist recognizes that it will be fulfilled because it is based on his steadfast love for David (v. 28). However, the lament in verses 39-52 seems to threaten the fulfillment of God’s promises. To shed some light on this issue, William Pohl provides the canonical significance of Psalm 89: “(1) Psalm 89 is messianic in that it encourages hope in a return for David in the midst of lament; (2) the psalm indicates the loss of the Davidic dynasty is only temporary and the covenant has not failed and is not broken; and (3) this messianic hope is rooted in God's character and kingship.”[35] Pohl believes that “rather than a lament over the failure of Davidic covenant, the hymn and oracle sections encourage a messianic hope and an anticipation of restoration in light of God’s character.”[36] Pohl’s emphasis on God’s character serves as the grounds for this claim. Since God is a covenant-keeping God, his character ensures the fulfillment of the promises given to David. Despite the failures of David and his progeny, God’s people should not lose hope. Instead, they must find comfort in his unchanging character and his Anointed One who will fulfill all the promises given to David. Thus, difficult circumstances must not define God’s people. God’s character and promises must shape their lives to the degree that they live with unwavering hope. Huffman concludes: “God's covenant with David, then, had wide-reaching implications for all of God's people, not just for the Davidic king himself. The confidence of God's people in God's word to David, then, could hardly be any more vital or practical to their daily life.”[37]

Conclusion

            Understanding how the implications of the Davidic Covenant play out in the Psalms and Prophets must then lead the student of Scripture to the conclusion that Jesus Christ is the Davidic Messiah. Longman III and Dillard note, “As we turn to the New Testament, we see the fulfillment of the Davidic covenant that a son of David will sit forever on the throne. The promise is fulfilled in the person of Jesus Christ, who according to Paul, ‘as to his earthly life was a descendant of David’” (Rom. 1:3).[38] A key passage to this assertion is found in Matthew 22:41-46 where Jesus cites Psalm 110:1, one of the messianic texts most quoted in the NT.[39] By citing Psalm 110, Jesus showed the Pharisees that the Davidic Messiah is not only David’s son but is also David’s Lord. This was a controversial statement because Jesus was implying that the Messiah is not just a special human descended from David but is also the Son of God.[40] The implication that Jesus was making is shocking: he is not only claiming to be the Davidic Messiah but he is also claiming to be God. Furthermore, Waltke states, “The Messiah transcends the greatest king, and the division between Aaronic priests and Davidic kings is replaced by an Anointed One who combines in himself both offices.”[41] Hence, Jesus’ citation of Psalm 110 in Matthew 22:41-46 can inform our understanding of the Davidic covenant from a canonical perspective when it is read in a messianic and eschatological sense.[42] Moreover, Peter Lee explains:

This reading follows a flow of thought that can be discerned internally within Psalm 110 itself as well as within its surrounding poetic context, specifically Psalms 111, 112, and 113. . . . Psalm 110 confirms that the Lord is true to His promise to David by portraying the coming of an ideal and victorious Davidic king. Although it seems highly unlikely that the OT readers would have concluded that the “lord” of David is an embodiment of the divine Yahweh, given the internal-exegetical and external-canonical evidence it was not unreasonable for the NT writers to make the conclusions that they did.[43]

Indeed, Matthew 22:41-46 should cause one to see that Jesus is the Lord of David in Psalm 110the Messiah who will rule justly and be victorious over his enemies. It is no wonder why Jesus said: “Everything must be fulfilled that is written about me in the Law of Moses, the Prophets and the Psalms” (Lk. 24:44). Since Jesus has proven through his life and the scriptures that he is the Davidic Messiah, I can face each day with hope knowing that he is coming again to fulfill everything God promised David.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY

 

Block, Daniel. The Lord’s Anointed: Interpretation of Old Testament Messianic Text. Eugene, OR: Wipf & Stock Publishers, 2012.

Chan, Alan KamYau. Melchizedek Passages in the Bible: A Case Study for Inner-Biblical and Inter-Biblical Interpretation. Warszawa, PL: De Gruyter Open Poland, 2016.

Chisholm Jr., Robert. “The Christological Fulfillment of Isaiah’s Servant Songs.” Bibliotheca Sacra 163 (October-December 2006): 395.

Collins, C. John. ESV Global Study Bible. Wheaton, IL: Crossway, 2012.

Eaton, John. Festal Drama in Deutero-Isaiah. London, UK: SPCK Publishing, 1979.

Grisanti, Michael. “The Davidic Covenant.” The Master’s Seminary Journal 10, no. 2 (Fall 1999): 233-250.

Heim, Knut. The Lord’s Anointed: Interpretation of Old Testament Messianic Text. Eugene, OR: Wipf & Stock Publishers, 2012.

Huffman, Justin. “The Davidic Covenant: Psalm 89 and the Servant King.” Reformed Perspective Magazine 18, no. 20 (May 2016). https://thirdmill.org/magazine/article.asp/link/http:%5E%5Ethirdmill.org%5Earticles%5Ejus_huffman%5Ejus_huffman.SK.html/at/The%20Davidic%20Covenant:%20Psalm%2089%20and%20the%20Servant%20King.

Kaiser Jr., Walter. “The Blessing of David: The Charter of Humanity.” The Law and the Prophets: Oswald T. Allis Festschrift. (1974): 298-318.

Lee, Peter. “Psalm 110 Reconsidered.” Reformed Faith & Practice 2, no. 2 (September 2017). https://journal.rts.edu/article/psalm-110-reconsidered/.

Longman III, Tremper and Dillard, Raymond. An Introduction to the Old Testament. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2006. Kindle.

MacArthur, John. The MacArthur Study Bible. Wheaton, IL: Crossway, 2010.

Ortlund Jr., Raymond. ESV Global Study Bible. Wheaton, IL: Crossway, 2012.

Oswalt, John. ESV Global Study Bible. Wheaton, IL: Crossway, 2012.

Pentecost, J. Dwight. Things to Come. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1964.

Pohl, William. “A Messianic Reading of Psalm 89: A Canonical and Intertextual Study.” Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 58, Iss. 3 (Sep 2015): 507-525. https://www.proquest.com/docview/1722764069/32821177E0334965PQ/1?accountid=173955.

Provan, Iain. The Lord’s Anointed: Interpretation of Old Testament Messianic Text. Eugene, OR: Wipf & Stock Publishers, 2012.

Reimer, David. ESV Global Study Bible. Wheaton, IL: Crossway, 2012.

Tesh, Edward and Zorn, Walter. College Press NIV Commentary: Psalms. Joplin, MO: College Press Publishing, 1999. Digital.

The Gospel Coalition. “The Messianic Hope.” Accessed December 7, 2021. https://www.thegospelcoalition.org/essay/the-messianic-hope/.

Waltke, Bruce and Yu, Charles. An Old Testament Theology: An Exegetical, Canonical, and Thematic Approach. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan Academic, 2007. Kindle.

Walvoord, John. “Millennial Series.” Bibliotheca Sacra 110:98-99 (April 1953).

Wilkins, Michael. ESV Global Study Bible. Wheaton, IL: Crossway, 2012.

 

 

 

 

 

[1] Michael Grisanti, “The Davidic Covenant,” The Master’s Seminary Journal 10, no. 2 (Fall 1999): 233.

[2] “The Messianic Hope,” The Gospel Coalition, accessed December 7, 2021, https://www.thegospelcoalition.org/essay/the-messianic-hope/.

[3] John Walvoord, “Millennial Series,” Bibliotheca Sacra, 110:98-99, (April 1953).

[4] J. Dwight Pentecost, Things to Come (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1964), 104.

[5] Walter Kaiser Jr. “The Blessing of David: The Charter of Humanity,” The Law and the Prophets: Oswald T. Allis Festschrift, (1974): 310. 

[6] Bruce Waltke and Charles Yu, An Old Testament Theology: An Exegetical, Canonical, and Thematic Approach (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan Academic, 2007), 888, Kindle.  

[7] Raymond Ortlund Jr., ESV Global Study Bible (Wheaton, IL: Crossway, 2012), 925.

[8] Robert Chisholm Jr. “The Christological Fulfillment of Isaiah’s Servant Songs,” Bibliotheca Sacra, 163 (October-December 2006): 395.

[9] John MacArthur, The MacArthur Study Bible (Wheaton, IL: Crossway, 2010), 1017.

[10] Walter Kaiser Jr., “The Blessing of David: The Charter of Humanity,” The Law and the Prophets: Oswald T. Allis Festschrift, (1974): 306.

[11] John Eaton, Festal Drama in Deutero-Isaiah (London, UK: SPCK Publishing, 1979), 87-88.

[12] Robert Chisholm Jr. “The Christological Fulfillment of Isaiah’s Servant Songs,” Bibliotheca Sacra, 163 (October-December 2006): 400.

[13] William Pohl, “A Messianic Reading of Psalm 89: A Canonical and Intertextual Study,” Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society, Vol. 58, Iss. 3,  (Sep 2015): 507-525, https://www.proquest.com/docview/1722764069/32821177E0334965PQ/1?accountid=173955.

[14] Daniel Block, The Lord’s Anointed: Interpretation of Old Testament Messianic Text (Eugene, OR: Wipf & Stock Publishers, 2012), 175.

[15] David Reimer, ESV Global Study Bible (Wheaton, IL: Crossway, 2012), 1124.

[16] Daniel Block, The Lord’s Anointed: Interpretation of Old Testament Messianic Text (Eugene, OR: Wipf & Stock Publishers, 2012), 173-175.

[17] John Oswalt, ESV Global Study Bible (Wheaton, IL: Crossway, 2012), 1215.

[18] Ibid., 1215-16.

[19] Iain Provan, The Lord’s Anointed: Interpretation of Old Testament Messianic Text (Eugene, OR: Wipf & Stock Publishers, 2012), 71.

[20] Ibid., 73.

[21] Ibid., 73.

[22] Iain Provan, The Lord’s Anointed: Interpretation of Old Testament Messianic Text (Eugene, OR: Wipf & Stock Publishers, 2012), 72-73.

[23] Knut Heim, The Lord’s Anointed: Interpretation of Old Testament Messianic Text (Eugene, OR: Wipf & Stock Publishers, 2012), 224.

[24] Tremper Longman III and Raymond Dillard, An Introduction to the Old Testament (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2006), 253, Kindle.

[25] Ibid., 253.

[26] Edward Tesh and Walter Zorn, College Press NIV Commentary: Psalms (Joplin, MO: College Press Publishing, 1999), Digital.

[27] Ibid.

[28] Ibid.

[29] C. John Collins, ESV Global Study Bible (Wheaton, IL: Crossway, 2012), 731.

[30] Ibid., 783.

[31] Michael Grisanti, “The Davidic Covenant,” The Master’s Seminary Journal 10, no. 2 (Fall 1999): 244.

[32] Knut Heim, The Lord’s Anointed: Interpretation of Old Testament Messianic Text (Eugene, OR: Wipf & Stock Publishers, 2012), 225.

[33] Michael Grisanti, “The Davidic Covenant,” The Master’s Seminary Journal, (Fall 1999): 250.

[34] Justin Huffman, “The Davidic Covenant: Psalm 89 and the Servant King,” Reformed Perspective Magazine 18, no. 20 (May 2016), https://thirdmill.org/magazine/article.asp/link/http:%5E%5Ethirdmill.org%5Earticles%5Ejus_huffman%5Ejus_huffman.SK.html/at/The%20Davidic%20Covenant:%20Psalm%2089%20and%20the%20Servant%20King.

[35] William Pohl, “A Messianic Reading of Psalm 89: A Canonical and Intertextual Study,” Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society, Vol. 58, Iss. 3,  (Sep 2015): 507-525, https://www.proquest.com/docview/1722764069/32821177E0334965PQ/1?accountid=173955.

[36] Ibid.

[37] Justin Huffman, “The Davidic Covenant: Psalm 89 and the Servant King,” Reformed Perspective Magazine 18, no. 20 (May 2016), https://thirdmill.org/magazine/article.asp/link/http:%5E%5Ethirdmill.org%5Earticles%5Ejus_huffman%5Ejus_huffman.SK.html/at/The%20Davidic%20Covenant:%20Psalm%2089%20and%20the%20Servant%20King.

[38] Tremper Longman III and Raymond Dillard, An Introduction to the Old Testament (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2006), 263, Kindle.

[39] Michael Wilkins, ESV Global Study Bible (Wheaton, IL: Crossway, 2012), 1358.

[40] Ibid., 1358.

[41] Bruce Waltke and Charles Yu, An Old Testament Theology: An Exegetical, Canonical, and Thematic Approach (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan Academic, 2007), 136, Kindle.  

[42] Chan Alan KamYau, Melchizedek Passages in the Bible: A Case Study for Inner-Biblical and Inter-Biblical Interpretation (Warszawa, PL: De Gruyter Open Poland, 2016), 143.

[43] Peter Lee, “Psalm 110 Reconsidered,” Reformed Faith & Practice 2, no. 2 (September 2017), https://journal.rts.edu/article/psalm-110-reconsidered/.